Congenital malformations at birth in 7,922 consecutive deliveries at Patan Hospital, Nepal

Imran Ansari, Rateena Rajbhandari, Shiva Chalise, Ganesh Shah, Pratistha Maskey, Rashmila Maharjan, Rajiv Yadav, Biplav Manandhar, Rahil Ansari

Abstract


Introductions: Congenital malformations need to be identified and intervened
early to save lives and prevent sufferings. Many birth defects have well known
incidence/prevalence rates but these have not been studied thoroughly in the
local population of Nepal. The current study was undertaken to determine the
prevalence of congenital malformation at birth, to classify them systematically,
to study risk factors and immediate outcome of the newborn babies afflicted.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study. All newly delivered babies were
examined carefully for congenital malformation and when detected, the
parents were interviewed in detail.

Results: Over the 10 months of study period 7,922 babies were delivered out
of which 90 were stillborn. The number of babies with malformations was 64
(0.81%). Polydactyli was observed in 12 (19%) babies whereas cleft lip/palate
and malformations of ears in seven (11%) each. Musculoskeletal system was
affected in 31 (35%) cases and craniofacial in 18 (21%). Nine (14%) mothers had bad obstetric history and eight (13%) had illness/medication during pregnancy.

Conclusions: Congenital malformation is a significant cause of morbidity and
mortality in Patan hospital. Our findings support many established thoughts
like higher rates in stillbirths but also challenge some age-old beliefs like higher
rates in babies born to older mothers.

Keywords: adverse outcome, congenital malformation, perinatal mortality, risk
factor


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