Ocular pathology in patients referred to Ophthalmology Outpatient clinic at tertiary care hospital with headache

Ocular cause of headache



Headache, Nepal, Ocular Manifestations, Ophthalmology, Refractive Error


Introduction: Headaches have multi-factorial causes, including ocular casues and a systematic ocular examination is beneficial. Physicians at the point of the first contact should therefore be familiar with common ocular pathologies associated with a headache for appropriate referral.

Method: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Patan Hospital, Nepal for 15 months till adequate sample size of 354 were reached. Patients with headache as primary symptom and who were referred to ophthalmology clinic for ocular evaluation by other departments were included. Occular findings were recorded and analyzed descriptively. Ethical approval was obtained.

Result: Among 354 patients 61% were in 14-40 y, homemaker 30.2% followed by students 25.4%. Ocular pathology was detected in 76% of patients. No refractive errors were seen in (67.8%). Refractive error was more common in the presbyopia age group but was no statistically significant difference observed between different age groups. Most patients were orthophoric, 11% had vergence insufficiency. Ocular pathology of dry eye, glaucoma suspects were more common.

Conclusion: The ocular morbidities was seen in 2/3rd of patients with headaches and may benefit from referral to a specialist.

Author Biographies

Ranjana Sharma, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Patan Hospital

Dipsikha Aryal, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal

MPH Student

Mukesh Kumar Jha, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Optometrist, Department of Ophthalmology, Patan Hospital




2022-01-07 — Updated on 2022-06-19